Injuries in Sport
Sport can involve both traumatic and overuse injuries. Traumatic injuries are caused by the actions of the same sport, so contact sports are more prone to these injuries. While overuse injuries can occur in any sport and are related to the quantity and quality of sport time leading to injuries in different structures.
Muscle: Are the motor part of the limbs and are used to produce joint movement. Injuries often occur indirectly by overstretching and treatment is basically stretches and eccentric muscle work.
Tendons: They are the structures that attach muscles to bones and serve as transmission of muscle strength. Injuries often occur from overuse, with prevention by stretching being the best treatment.
Joint injuries. Within joints are different structures that can be injured:
Articular cartilage. It is the tissue that primarily serves to prevent friction in the joint during movement. Injury or damage leads to joint degeneration or osteoarthritis. It can be affected traumatically or suffer diseases such as osteochondritis dissecans.
Meniscus-labrum. They are the structures that are located between the articular surfaces and their fundamental mission is reducing articular impact forces and increases the consistency of the joint. Joint injury occurs, producing locking, fluid and joint pain. In meniscal surgery it is essential to preserve as much possible because the lack of meniscus or labrum may trigger the degeneration of articular cartilage.
Ligaments are structures whose fundamental role is to help bring stability to the joints. A ligament injury causes joint instability and eventually deterioration of articular cartilage and osteoarthritis. There are ligaments whose function is essential to perform pivot activities like football, such as the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which requires surgical repair for the athlete to continue with their respective sport. Other ligaments like the medial collateral ligament of the knee may not require surgery and the application of PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors), immobilization and proper physiotherapy gets excellent results.
The synovium is the lining of the entire joint and inflammation leads to overproduction of synovial fluid known as joint effusion. It can be affected by trauma associated with other joint diseases or rheumatic diseases such as gout or arthritis.